Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam or commonly referred to as APJ Abdul Kalam is an aerospace engineer who was the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He is also a professor in aviation engineering and the first Chancellor of the Thiruvananthapuram Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST).
He was born on October 15, 1931, at Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu. Kalam grew up in a poor family which made him have to start working at an early age to supplement his family’s income. After school, Kalam Kalam helps his father deliver paper orders to customers. During his school days, Kalam was known as a smart child and always worked hard. He has a strong desire to learn and spend hours studying, especially mathematics. After completing his school education, Kalam continued to study at the Santo Yusuf High School, Tiruchirappalli where he graduated in physics in 1954. Because he was not satisfied with the knowledge he had received during his studies, Kalam decided to move to Madras in 1955 to study aviation engineering at Madras Institute of Technology. Here, Kalam’s expertise in flight techniques began to be honed. After completing his studies, he worked as an aerospace engineer at the Agency for Defense Research and Development (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
As an engineer, Kalam made a significant contribution to developing India’s first satellite launch vehicle (SLV-III). Apart from satellites, Kalam is also responsible for developing the Indigenous Guided Missiles at the Defense Research and Development Organization as Chief Executive of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP).
Seeing his good performance, Kalam was later withdrawn to become a Scientific Advisor to the Minister of Defense, Research and Development from July 1992 to December 1999. During this period, Kalam worked with the Department of Atomic Energy to make India possess nuclear weapons. He also provides an impetus to be independent in the defense system with the advancement of several project and mission development tasks such as Lightweight Fighter Plane.
In 2002, Kalam was elected to become president of India replacing K. R. Narayanan. During his tenure as President, APJ Abdul Kalam was known as the President of the People. At the end of his term, on June 20, 2007, Kalam expressed his willingness to consider a second position provided there was certainty about his victory in the presidential election in 2007. But two days later, he finally decided not to advance to the presidential election exchange. Kalam became one of the most famous scientists in India. He has received honorary doctorates from 30 universities and other institutions. He has also been awarded the highest civilian awards namely Padma Bhushan (1981) and Padma Vibhushan (1990) and Bharat Ratna (1997).
Full Name: A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Place of Birth: Rameswaram in Tamil Nadu
Birthday: Thursday, October 15, 1931